The audit of assertions

Other times, they may also be implicit and have an indirect impact. There are two main type of assertions which are used in the audit process. They are referred to as transaction level assertions, and account balance assertions.

  1. Liabilities are another area that auditors will review to determine that any bills paid from the business belong to the business and not the owner.
  2. In this scheme the payables clerk adds and makes payments to a nonexistent vendor.
  3. Other times, they may also be implicit and have an indirect impact.
  4. Disaggregation is the separation of an item, or an aggregated group of items, into component parts.

When confirming completeness, auditors verify that this is the case. For certified public accountants (CPAs) and other auditors, determining the veracity of these assertions involves testing various aspects of the financial records and disclosures. Organizations of all sizes and types, from megacorporations to small businesses to nonprofits, prepare financial statements they are obliged to prepare and present as transparently and accurately as possible when audited. Public companies, for example, are required by law to have an annual audit of their financial statements. It is the auditor’s responsibility to determine that these items are properly disclosed in the financial statements. For instance, the reporting of a company’s accounts receivable account does not provide a guarantee that the customer will pay the accounts receivable amount owed.

The objective of audit testing is to assist the auditor in coming to a conclusion as to whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement. When performing audit procedures and sampling, auditors usually need to determine what is their sample of the records or documents to review. Likewise, auditors may use different sampling methods to determine their sample. Also, it is useful to note that the inspection alone will not provide evidence about the rights and obligations.

Audit Assertions: Everything You Need to Know

A test of control tests the operating effectiveness of controls in preventing, detecting or correcting material misstatements. (c)Describe the audit procedures an auditor would conduct before and whilst attending the inventory count of the beverages in the hotel. In order to test completeness the procedure should start from the underlying documents and check to the entries in the relevant ledger to ensure none have been missed. To test for occurrence the procedures will go the other way and start with the entry in the ledger and check back to the supporting documentation to ensure the transaction actually happened. Occurrence – this means that the transactions recorded or disclosed actually happened and relate to the entity.


Assertions are characteristics that need to be tested to ensure that financial records and disclosures are correct and appropriate. If assertions are all met for relevant transactions or balances, financial statements are appropriately recorded. Management assertions are the claims or representations made by management in the financial statements. In contrast, are the tools or lenses used by auditors to examine and test those claims. Both are fundamental to the audit process, with the former being the subject of the audit and the latter guiding the methodology of the audit. Lasse, auditors have the option to test controls if they are designed appropriately and they are in use.

Different Types of Assertions in Auditing

Assertions, in the context of auditing, are management’s implicit or explicit claims about the financial statements. They are assertions made by the company regarding the existence, completeness, valuation, rights and obligations, and presentation and disclosure of the reported financial information. Auditors rely on these assertions to evaluate the financial statements and express an opinion on their fairness. An external audit is a process where independent auditors examine a company’s financial statements. Based on their examination, they conclude whether those statements are free from material misstatements.

Audit Assertions

It relates to the presentation and disclosure of financial statements. Assertions ensure that the financial statements comply with applicable accounting standards and regulations, promoting transparency and consistency in financial reporting. Assertions help auditors identify and address risks of material misstatement, enabling them to focus their audit procedures on areas with a higher likelihood of error or fraud. Presentation and disclosure assertion refers to the proper classification, description, and disclosure of information in the financial statements.

The nature of related party transactions, balances and events has been clearly disclosed in the notes of financial statements. Users of the financial statements can clearly determine the financial statement captions affected by the related party transactions and balances and can easily ascertain their financial effect. All inventory units that should have been recorded have been recognized in the financial statements.

What are Audit Assertions?

Completeness helps auditors verify that all transactions for the period being examined have been properly entered in the correct period. For these, the auditor needs to verify the backup documents which claim such investments have been made by the company. audit assertions Also, the auditor may ask for third-party verification of the balance as of the said date. In the given example, we have discussed two assertions for the audit. Transactions have been classified and presented fairly in the financial statements.

Regardless, auditors need to make sure they address all possible areas of misstatement. Some auditors refer to auditing by assertions as an assertions audit. Regardless of the name, we need to know what the typical assertions are. Confirmation is similar to the inquiry as it is also the procedure of asking for the information. However, confirmation is usually done by asking the third party, instead of the client, to confirm transactions and balances.

However, external sources usually provide a better quality of evidence. They are more reliable comparing to the internal source of evidence that is provided by the client. The International Accounting Standards Board aimed to provide transparent accounting concepts that can be used to compare companies worldwide. Therefore, the board issued the International Financial Reporting Standards along with the IFRS foundation. Austin has been working with Ernst & Young for over four years, starting as a senior consultant before being promoted to a manager.

Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets. (d)Describe how audit software could facilitate the audit of trade receivables. You are aware that two of Builders Mate’s major customers went into administration during the year and they are likely to be liquidated in the near future. From your review of last year’s audit file you have determined that last year there were 2 specific provisions of $5k and $2k as well as a 3% general provision. €˜Numero Uno’ prides itself on delivering a first class dining experience and is renowned for its standards of service and cooking that few restaurants in the country come close to.

You may be tempted to learn these tests and repeat them ‘parrot fashion’ in the exam. Audit procedures are designed to reflect the unique risks of an audit and the nature of items and assertions under scrutiny. You must always try and make your answers specific to any scenarios presented in the exam. Obviously there is a link between the two because if the auditor performs tests to confirm the occurrence of sales this will also provide some assurance about the existence of receivables. Although the auditor may perform other tests specifically focussed on existence.

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